To start or stop the spindle a non-rotating starting/stopping shaft runs from the headstock for the full length of the bed. It will have at least one handle attached like the one shown in the photo. On the machine shown, pulling up on the handle from the neutral position starts the spindle in the counterclockwise direction (the correct direction for 99% of lathe operations). For the same handle, in the neutral position, a slight shift to the right and pushing down on the handle will cause the spindle to rotate clockwise. For both scenarios a movement back to the neutral position will turn off the motor. The spindle will then coast down to a stop. This lever actuated starting and stopping of the spindle is very common.
Most free standing lathes (not bench lathes) have a foot brake like the one shown. Pressing on the foot brake turns off the motor and applies a braking pressure to the spindle. The advantage of the foot brake is instant stopping and, therefore, added safety.
label: lathe operating, contorls, functions, parts, movements, ways, motor, headstock, spindle, brake, speeds and feeds, carraige, tailstock, centers, faceblate, dogs, threading, staedy rest, follower rest, lathe sizes, taper attachment