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4- Engine Lathe -Ways, Motor, and Headstock
To keep some of the mechanisms moving longitudinally straight and true, ways are machined on the top surface of the bed. Ways are ground and often hardened . They can be shaped like an inverted "V", flat, or other shapes that the manufacturer decides to use. The carriage and tail stock mechanisms are aligned on the ways.

Modern machines are called gear-head lathes because the entire system of speed and feed adjustments are gears just like the transmission of an automobile. The headstock contains the heart of the lathe and includes the motor and gear train

The motor is normally below the headstock and connected by a belt or gears to the spindle and lead screws.

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