Metallurgy - 2: Metals Groups
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Any of the elements that usually reflect light and conduct electricity and heat are called metals. Their general attributes are defined as "metallic" and there are four basic groups of them.

Group 1: Ferrous metallic materials are those materials containing iron, with steel being the most typical. Carbon plays a large role with these metals. They behave differently depending on the amount of carbon in the iron. Typically the more carbon the harder the steel. The drawback is that the more carbon in the steel the more brittle it becomes. Examples:

  • Low carbon Steel (iron and from .1 to .3% carbon- example product: bolts)
  • Medium carbon Steel ( iron and from .3 to .6% carbon - example product: car axles)
  • High carbon Steel (iron and from .6 to 1.7% carbon- example product: hammers)

Group 2: Ferrous metallic alloys improve the properties of steel by adding certain elements. Examples

Group 3: Non ferrous metallic materials. Examples:

  • Aluminum (example product: rarely used in unalloyed state)
  • Copper (example product: wire)
  • Nickel (example product: plating on steel)
  • Zinc

Group 4: Non ferrous metallic alloys. Examples:

  • Aluminum alloys (aluminum plus other elements - example product: airframes)
  • Bronze (copper and tin - example product: decorative)
  • Brass (copper and zinc - example product: ships hardware)

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label: ductility, elasticity, hardness, Rockwell, Brinell, malleability, toughness, fatigue, blast furnace, oxygen furnace, electric furnace, alloy, alloying, aluminum