Castings - 6: Other Types
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Cored castings are sand castings that use a sand core to minimize machining later. The sand core is inserted into the two mold halves to produce a hole or holes in the casting. The core can be simple, such as the bore of a wheel, as shown on the right (image), or complex, such as the water cooling holes in an engine block casting.

Permanent mold castings employ a metal mold which can be reused many times. Permanent mold castings are similar to sand castings in that the molten metal is poured into the mold, but also similar to die casting because the mold is machined from cast iron or steel. The casting, therefore, has a smoother surface finish and tighter dimensions than a sand casting.

Centrifugal castings use a spinning mold. Centrifugal force causes the molten metal to flow into the mold cavity. It is particularly useful when casting large round parts such as a cylinder or wheel rim. The mold is spun around the axis and molten metal is poured into the center. Centrifugal force then causes the molten metal to flow to the edges (into the wheel rim, for example) where the metal cools and solidifies before the spinning is stopped (animation). The advantage of centrifugal casting is that no cores or risers are required to make the casting.

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label: casting, castings, sand casting, die casting, investment casting, bosses, lugs